PLM:

These samples are from the expeditions of Apollo 11 to the Sea of Tranquility and Apollo 12 to the Ocean of Storms. They are provided courtesy of NASA and the photomicrographs Figures 1, 2, and 3 are not copyrighted. The Apollo 11 sample here (PA593-1) represents the fines from Sample 10084, < 1 mm fines from the bulk (selected) ALSRC sample-formally part of 10002. The Apollo 12 sample here (PA593-2, PA593-3) represents the fines from Sample 12070 collected 10 m NW of the Lunar Module. The Apollo 11 samples are largely basaltic rock (specific gravity about 3.3), breccia and glass fragments; also anorthositic material (specific gravity about 2.9). Most of the backside of the moon and the eastern highland regions on the front side are reported to appear to be made up of anorthosite (an aluminum and calcium rich rock). Anorthosite fragments may show bits of plagioclase, olivine, q.v., and pigeonite. The principal minerals of crystallized lavas include pyroxene, plagioclase and ilmenite. The ilmenite is interesting in that, unlike terrestrial samples, the titanium content is relatively high. The well-publicized glassy spheres in the lunar soil can be seen in photomicrograph Figure 1 , which shows one of the larger, darker spheres, and in photomicrograph Figure 2 which shows a number of the smaller glassy spheres. The soil glasses vary in composition. The average composition (percent by weight) of 21 glasses show SiO2 (42%), TiO2 (7%), Al2O3 (14%), FeO (16%), MgO (9%), CaO (12%), Na2O (0.3%), K2O (0.2%); sometimes there is more aluminum or iron, less calcium etc. The Apollo 12 samples (PA593-2, PA593-3) show olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase and pyroxene-phyricbasalts. About 10-15% of each sample here is magnetic; the magnetism is due to ilmenite, FeTiO3, the black, opaque particles in the photomicrographs. Neither sample fluoresces in UV (365 nm) or blue-violet (400 nm). Additional data on these and other lunar soil samples can be obtained from the literature, including: Proceedings of the Third Lunar Science Conference, 3 vols. (especially vol. 1: Minerology and Petrology), MIT Press, 1972, and the prior Proceedings,. "Proceedings of the Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference," Geochim, Cosmochim. Acta, Pergamon; "The Lunar Soil," John A. Wood, Scientific American (August 1970).

SEM:

NASA has kindly made this sample from Apollo 12 available to us. Most of the particles show evidence of fusion, although crystals of ilmenite, plagioclase, olivine and pigeonite are also present. The EDXRA. shows Al (1.49), Si (1.74), Ca (3.69), Ti (4.51, 4.93), Fe (6.40, 7.06) and perhaps Mg (1.25) as shoulder on the Al peak.